Varietal Development In Canada
Three major breeding programs develop flax and solin varieties for Canada. These are the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
program located at the Morden Research Centre in Morden, Manitoba; the Crop Development Centre program located at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; and the Agricore United
program at the Morden Research Centre. Additionally, some seed companies are
introducing cultivars from other countries. Disease resistance to rust and wilt has been emphasized by all the programs in order to keep these problems under control. Thus, all registered flax and solin varieties are resistant to rust and must have moderate resistance to fusarium wilt. Since 1973, when the last
outbreak of rust occurred, the resistance to flax rust has continued to hold.
All flax varieties registered in Canada
are brown-seeded and have high levels of alpha-linolenic fatty acid (ALA). Solin
varieties, with less than 5% ALA, produce polyunsaturated edible oil similar to
sunflower oil and, in Canada, must have
yellow seed. Unregistered yellow-seeded flax varieties, with high levels of alpha-linolenic acid, are grown under contract for use in edible products and for the health food market.
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Program
Since the early 1900s, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and its predecessors have been active in developing new flax varieties for Canada and, in particular, for the Canadian Prairies. The initial program at
the Central Experimental Farm in Ottawa produced varieties such as Diadem, Ottawa 770B, Ottawa 829C and Novelty. During the 1950s, this program was particularly active, releasing varieties such as Linott, Raja and Rocket. The 1950s and 1960s also marked the beginning of an evolution and transition in flax breeding in Canada as a new program was initiated at the Indian Head Experimental Farm and the Winnipeg Cereal Breeding Laboratory, which led to the development of the variety Cree. As well, in Alberta, in the 1960s, a breeding program was conducted at the Fort Vermillion Experimental Farm and Beaverlodge Research Station, producing the variety Noralta, the predominant variety grown in northern Alberta and Saskatchewan.
The breeding programs were eventually
consolidated and moved to Winnipeg in 1960, finally moving to Morden, Manitoba where they still exist. The varieties Dufferin, McGregor, NorLin, NorMan, AC Linora, AC McDuff , AC Emerson, AC Carnduff and AC Lightning have been released by the Morden Research Centre.
The focus of the breeding efforts at Morden has been to develop improved flax cultivars for the Prairies. Consequently,
most of the cultivars developed have wide
adaptation to prairie conditions. The
breeding program is devoting its attention
to the development of new cultivars with increased yield potential, decreased time to maturity, better lodging resistance, chlorosis tolerance, improved disease resistance and improved seed quality by increasing seed oil content and ALA content.
Crop Development Centre Program
A modest breeding program was carried out at the University of Saskatchewan from the 1920s through the 1960s, which produced the varieties Royal and Redwood 65. The program was enlarged in 1974 when the Crop Development Centre (CDC) initiated a flax breeding program. It has since produced seven cultivars: Vimy, Somme, Flanders, CDC Normandy, CDC Valour, CDC Arras and CDC Bethune. Other varieties produced at the Crop Development Centre include Andro (tissue-culture-derived) and CDC Triffid (first transgenic flax cultivar). Both of these varieties have now been deregistered and are not commercially available.
The breeding program is developing
varieties for Western Canadian conditions, with particular emphasis on Saskatchewan. Improved yield potential, earlier maturity, good agronomic performance, disease resistance, quality characteristics, greater seed weight and lodging resistance are some of the breeding objectives. The Crop Development Centre is also developing varieties of solin.
In 1987, a solin breeding program was initiated by Biotechnica Canada in
cooperation with Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation to develop low ALA flax, subsequently known as solin. In 1990, United Grain Growers Ltd. (UGG) purchased Biotechnica’s interest in the program and moved the
program from Calgary to the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Morden Research Centre and the UGG research and evaluation farm at Rosebank, Manitoba. This breeding
program has produced the solin cultivars, LinolaTM 947, 989 and 1084.
Overall the program is committed to the development of varieties with superior
agronomic performance and disease
resistance as well as enhanced quality (value) characteristics. The characteristics of flax and solin varieties currently registered for Canada are described in Tables 3 and 4, respectively. Varietal yield performance is presented in Tables 5 and 6, respectively. For more information on the varieties recommended in a particular area, refer to provincial recommendations, which are published annually.
Uses for Flax
The Canadian commercial flax crop
satisfies the diverse needs of a wide group of end users. The flax breeding programs support flax market development by focussing on quality characteristics tailored to particular business and consumer markets.
The natural qualities of flax make it a desirable oil and fibre commodity for
manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to chemical- and plastic-based products. Thus, flax is exported primarily as raw seed for crushing into linseed oil. From the oil, manufacturers create environmentally
friendly products such as linoleum flooring, and also some paints and stains. Similarly, flax straw, in a partially or completely processed form, is used in the manufacture of fine papers and, more recently, for
industrial fibre products such as the interior panelling of some cars.
In addition to these industrial uses, new feed and food markets underpin market
stability and fuel growth. Seen as a health-promoting ingredient, premium quality flax is rapidly being absorbed into the expanding functional food markets. Functional foods are those food products which have been
fortified with a healthful ingredient, or which are promoted because of a healthy ingredient. Flax, with its high alpha-linolenic fatty acid content, ample fibre, and
cancer-fighting lignans is a unique functional food. To serve these markets, “super-clean”
(judged 99.9% pure) whole seed and
packaged milled seed is sold to food
manufacturers. The consumer market for whole and milled flax seed, and cold-pressed flax oil is also expanding.
Flax in animal feeds could be an
important contributor to animal performance and health. In the pork and beef industries, flax use in hog rations and cattle feed is being investigated for improved production. Meanwhile, flax processors have seen growth in the use of flax by pet food manufacturers. Flax in pet food formulations has been
promoted as solving digestive and skin
problems in dogs and cats.